Subject:Carbohydrate in Pine Pollen Powder

Carbohydrate in Pine Pollen Powder

Postdate:2015-12-16 23:41:26   Hits:938

A carbohydrate is a biological molecule consisting of carbon (C), hydrogen (H) and oxygen (O) atoms, usually with a hydrogen:oxygen atom ratio of 2:1 (as in water). The term is most common in biochemistry, where it is a synonym of saccharide, a group that includes sugars, starch, and cellulose. The saccharides are divided into four chemical groups: monosaccharides, disaccharides, oligosaccharides, and polysaccharides. The major biological action of carbohydrate is to release large amounts of energy via oxidation in order to meet the needs of vital movement. As the main energy source of human body, it is an essential nutriment in activities of human organs especially for heart and brain. And nervous tissues and cell nucleus in human body both contain carbohydrate.

Starch and Sugar
The total content of carbohydrate in pine pollen powder accounts for 25%-48%. Many people who want to loose weight seem to dislike carbohydrate and think that the starch and sugar in carbohydrate may go against weight loss. But the truth is that fat could be burnt out with the help of carbohydrate; meanwhile starch and sugar could be transferred to glucose in the process of digestion. Glucose is also known as blood sugar which must provide necessary energy for brain and central nervous. Carbohydrate contains the same calorie as protein, thus we need to take in carbohydrate everyday to help prevent energy of protein from wasting so that it could be applied to where it is mostly needed. And this process is called the protective effects of protein. Since protein is the essential substance to form body tissues and protein is needed when the tissues repair themselves, enough carbohydrate could avoid wasting protein to be transferred to energy. And content of starch and sugar in pine pollen powder is 7% and 10% respectively.

Callose is a plant polysaccharide and is composed of glucose residues linked together through β-1,3-linkages, and is termed a β-glucan. It is thought to be manufactured at the cell wall by callose synthases and is degraded by β-1,3-glucanases. It is laid down at plasmodesmata, at the cell plate during cytokinesisand during pollen development. It is produced in response to wounding, infection by pathogens, aluminium and abscisic acid. Deposits often appear on thesieve plates at the end of the growing season. Callose also forms immediately around the developing meiocytes and tetrads of sexually reproducing angiosperms but is not found in related apomictic taxa. Callose deposition at the cell wall has been suggested as an early marker for direct somatic embryogenesis from cortical and epidermal cells of Cichorium hybrids.

Dietary Fiber
Dietary fiber or roughage is the indigestible portion of food derived from plants. It has two main components: soluble fiber, which dissolves in water, is readily fermented in the colon into gases and physiologically active byproducts, and can be prebiotic and viscous; insoluble fiber, which does not dissolve in water, is metabolically inert and provides bulking, or it can be prebiotic and metabolically ferment in the large intestine. Bulking fibers absorb water as they move through the digestive system, easing defecation. And such substances include cellulose, hemicellulose, lignin, pectin and gums, etc.

As early as in ancient Greece, people have learned that there is fibrous indigestible substance in wheat bran and it is very effective to prevent constipation. However because it is not digested and absorbed, this substance was treated as wastes and its nutritional role was not take seriously in a long time. During the Second World War, the British doctors who engaged in medical activities in colonies in Africa took their disease investigation on local residents as an opportunity and started to re-explore the role of fiber. They noticed that the European and American whites had different disease types from the original inhabitants in Africa, diseases caused by modern civilization such as heart disease, atherosclerosis, diabetes, colon cancer and constipation were hardly found in Africa residents. Thus they believed that the difference of diseases types were not due to environmental and genetic reason, but because of the difference of their diet habits, especially caused by different intake of fat and fiber. In 1971, British doctor Denis Parsons Burkitt proposed the viewpoint that less fiber diet may suffer from a higher risk of colorectal cancer, he believed that due to fewer fibers, excrement amount will be reduced, defecating frequency also will be reduced as well as the excrement moving speed will become slow, resulting in a longer contact time of carcinogens and the intestinal mucosa which will increase the risk of cancer. In 1972, Denis Parsons Burkitt and his partner Trowell collectively refered the cellulose in food referred to as dietary fiber. With the development of society and the concept of nutrition, the modern diet is becoming too fine.

Medical studies have shown that the occurrence of excess nutrients disease has a close relationship with the lack of dietary fiber, and dietary fiber is an indispensable part of the daily diet for human. Dietary fiber could be absorbed and utilized after break-down by certain digestive enzymes in the body. The study also shows that some dietary fiber can be decomposed by gut bacterial and generates heat, thus it has been recognized as the seventh largest nutrients in many countries.
Physiological Actions of Dietary Fiber:
1). Dietary fiber can not be digested, decomposed and absorbed, so it could stay a longer time in the gastrointestinal tract, which could help to reduces the food-intake and is good for weight loss. It is also beneficial to people with diabetes due to it could slow down the rise of blood sugar after a meal.
2). Dietary fiber can absorb, transport and eliminate cholesterol, bile acids and various toxic substances and carcinogens in intestinal tract, so as to help reduce cholesterol, prevent arteriosclerosis, coronary heart disease and reduce the hazards of toxins and carcinogens on the body or organs (such as colon).
3). Dietary fiber can absorb large amounts of water thus compatibilize excrement, which could help regulate gastrointestinal function and prevent constipation from happening.

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